Electrical field-induced extraction and separation techniques: Promising trends in analytical chemistry


What is the analytical problem, and why is it important?

The use of electrical driving force in analytical chemistry is generalized into separation, extraction, and electrochemical techniques. Electrically assisted extractions techniques have far-reaching benefits as they easily integrate into the chip-based devices. The paper, therefore, focuses on the membrane-bound extractions methods intending to derive general ideas on the impact the electric fields have on sample treatment and to evaluate the potential of these techniques.

What criteria did the authors consider in designing their experiments?

The researchers applied and identified the essential criteria of analytical chemistry. Some of these are to attain a more uncomplicated, less expensive, faster, and climate-smart separation technique. They got motivated by the need to scale down the sample size, overcome sample matrix effect, and the need to automate the process. They, therefore, adopted the electrical driving force model, which simplifies and shortens the sample preparation process and enhances selectivity.



What is the basic experimental procedure?

The authors have described how they are going to use microwaves, ultrasound, and heat auxiliary energies in the sample preparation. Electrical driving force energy is the modern and widely used axillary energy in varied extraction techniques involving liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, and membrane-based methods.

What interferences were considered, and how did they overcome them?

The data analysis and separation are most likely to be disturbed by analytes of biological or environmental origin. The researchers have thus put in place a series of steps to remove interfering agents. These include preconcentrating the analytes and increasing their sensitivity. This calls for the development of current and superior analyte extraction techniques.

How did the authors calibrate the assay?

The author conducted a conceptual clustering to scrutinize the varied features of different electrically assisted techniques. This will, in turn, facilitate the keeping of information for future reference. The author further carried out a theoretical review of previous works done by other researchers through a comprehensive survey. The review enables researchers to understand and explore recent advancements in the field of electrochemically modulated extractions methods.






How did the authors validate their experimental method?

The author validated the test results by comparing the substantial supremacy of electrical driving force to that of the auxiliary energies concerning the possibility of manipulating the relative distribution of analytes into two regions. Under these conditions, it is easier to control the properties of an extraction set up. The referred conditions are selectivity, clean up rate, and efficiency across the liquid-liquid separation and solid-liquid phase boundaries.

Is there evidence that steps 2, 3, and 4 are repeated?

Yes. The development and execution of this analytical separation technique require a continuous process. The researchers thus had to repeat steps 2,3, and 4.This has provided a substantial improvement in the separation technique improvements. The authors did conduct experiments and validated the results with the theoretical principles. The process of which demanded cyclic rational of steps from 2,3 and 4.

Was there a successful conclusion to the analytical problem?

Yes, the authors indeed identified the potential and impact of applying electrical energy on the extraction methods. They concluded that it is the possibility of manipulating the relative distribution of the analyte energies between two phases. The electrical driving forces also have the potential in the synthesis of coating films and membranes. They did a conclusive summary by proposing improvements and promotion of new ways electrically controlling sample separation and presentation (Yaminia, Rezazadeha and Seidi).

Work cited

Yaminia, Yadollah, Maryam Rezazadeha, and Shahram Seidi. “Electrical field-induced extraction and separation techniques: Promising trends in analytical chemistry – A review.” Analytica Chimica Acta (2013): 1-22. 23 October 2019.