Findings of a Quantitative Study


Bahreynian, M., Qorbani, M., Khaniabadi, B. M., Motlagh, M. E., Safari, O., Asayesh, H., & Kelishadi, R. (2017). Association between obesity and parental weight status in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology9(2), 111-117. doi:10.4274/jcrpe.3790


What was the purpose of the study (research questions, purposes, and hypotheses)?

The purpose was to assess the relationship between the BMI of children and that of parents.

How was the sample obtained?

The sample was obtained through a random selection of students in elementary, middle, and high schools throughout the country.

What inclusion or exclusion criteria were used?

The participants of the study had to be children and adolescents in elementary, middle, and high school. Considering that the study aimed to establish the relationship between the child and parental obesity, it was apparent that all of the children or adolescents had parents, either a mother or father.

Who from the sample actually participated or contributed data (demographic or clinical profile and dropout rate)?

From the sample of 25000 students, 23043 completed the study. 50.8 percent of these participants were boys while the rest were girls. More so, 73.4 percent of participants were from urban centers and the rest from rural areas.  88.3 percent of mothers who participated were housewives, while 44.38 of the fathers were either white-collar workers or laborers. Also, about 50 percent of the families owned personal computers and cars. The mean parental weight was 70.9-±13.8 kg, while that of children and adolescents was 42.50±17.0 kg. Finally, 9.4 percent of mothers and 17 percent of fathers had university degrees.

What methods were used to collect data (e.g., sequence, timing, types of data, and measures)?

Measurements were used in the collection of data on the participants. The weight of both parents and their children was measured.

Was an intervention tested?                                             Yes  ü No

  1. How was the sample size determined?

To determine the sample size, the researchers developed 48 clusters including 10 students from each province of the country.

  1. Were patients randomly assigned to treatment groups?

Selection of participants was done through cluster random sampling.

What are the main findings?

Obese parents were at a higher risk of having obese children than their normal-weight counterparts.


Is the study published in a source
that required peer review?                                               ü Yes   No   Not clear

*Did the data obtained and the
analysis conducted answer the
research question?                                                           ü Yes   No   Not clear

Were the measuring instruments
reliable and valid?                                                           ü Yes   No   Not clear

*Were important extraneous
variables and bias controlled?                                         ü Yes   No   Not clear

*If an intervention was tested,
answer the following five questions:                                Yes   No   Not clear

  1. Were participants randomly
    assigned to groups and were
    the two groups similar at the
    start (before the intervention)?  Yes   No   Not clear
  2. Were the interventions well
    defined and consistently
    delivered?  Yes   No   Not clear
  3. Were the groups treated
    equally other than the
    difference in interventions?  Yes   No   Not clear
  4. If no difference was found, was
    the sample size large enough
    to detect a difference if one existed?  Yes   No   Not clear
  5. If a difference was found, are
    you confident it was due to the
    intervention?  Yes   No   Not clear

Are the findings consistent with
findings from other studies?                                      Yes   Some   No   Not clear

Are the findings credible?                         ü Yes All   Yes Some   No

Clinical Significance

Note any difference in means, r2s, or measures of clinical effects (ABI, NNT, RR, OR)

*Is the target population clearly
described?                                                                       ü Yes   No   Not clear

*Is the frequency, association, or
treatment effect impressive enough
for you to be confident that the finding
would make a clinical difference if used
as the basis for care?                                                         Yes   No   Not clear

Are the findings
clinically significant?                                ü Yes All   Yes Some   No

* = Important criteria



This study provides significant insight into the role played by parental obesity in child and adolescent obesity. The research showed that the weight status of parents is a significant predictor of obesity and overweight among adolescents and children. This study links shared family dietary habits as a contributor to the childhood obesity crisis in different parts of the world. For clinical practice and application, this study emphasizes the urgency for implementing family-centered preventive programs as opposed to the current programs that focus on treatment. Overall, the study is of excellent quality, considering the methodology and use of experts to conduct the sampling and data collection through measurements of BMI. More so, the sample size and countrywide coverage, including rural and urban centers, confirm the generalizability of the study results. However, while the authors state that the self-reports on parental BMI are reliable, I think this aspect, to some extent, reduces the accuracy of the data due to the stigma associated with obesity.