Alexa Whetung

Professor Karl Hardy

LLCU 209

November 1st, 2019

Research Paper Topic – Outline

Topic: Violence

Preliminary Title:

“How the Epidemic of both Sexism and Racism Coexist with Brazil’s High Level of Violence”

Preliminary Abstract:

For this assignment I wanted to share my interest in the areas that have stood out to me throughout this course. Those two areas of interest being sexism and racism, because of the demographic that both these topics fall under, it could be argued that the subject would be quite broad for just one paper. Therefore, I have decided to make both topics, subtopics, that will be the main questions of discussion when looking at violence in Brazil. Not only have I been intrigued by how women and men are treated differently in Brazil when it comes to the consequences of violence, but I have also been interested to learn that due to Brazil being a multi-racial country, it is interesting to see how the colour of one’s skin (whether the individual be female or male) is seen to inflict different kinds of violence in both politics and with law enforcement as well.


Preliminary Research Questions to Answer in Paper:

  1. For how long and why has Brazil been known as being a country of male dominance?
  2. Are women held as subordinate to men when it comes to both familial and community relationships?
  3. Have the societal roles of women continued to be heavily impacted by patriarchal traditions? Why?
  4. Despite the gains made in women’s rights in Brazil, in what ways do women still face significant differences in gender inequality?
  5. Why is little being done in regard to aggression, femicide and rape in Brazil, which is causing an alarming rise in the country’s violence rate?
  6. Being a multi-racial country, is Brazil seen as still being a country of racial abuse?
  7. In what ways does Brazil continue to show issues of racism throughout their legal system?
  8. What is the “whiteness” ideology? And how does it particularly associate to Brazil?
  9. In what ways have the “racial democracy” of Brazil been questioned? In what ways have the country proven this “identifier” to untrue?
  10. Police violence is one of the most internationally recognized human rights abuses in Brazil. Does this brutality have to do with race or the geographical residing of civilians?

Preliminary / Annotated Bibliography:

Schipani, A., & Elliott, L. (2018, May 15). Brazil women bring fight against sexism on to political agenda. Retrieved October 25, 2019, from

  • This source is a news article that surrounds the political issue of sexism in Brazil. Manuela D’Avila throughout the article looks at the political violence women are being subjected to, after a left-wing female congresswoman was described as being “too ugly” to be raped.

Phillips, D. (2019, September 10). Brazil report charts surge in racial abuse and violence against women. Retrieved October 25, 2019, from

  • This news article discusses the alarming rise in racial abuse, sexual assault, femicide and violence against women and LGBT people in 2018, in Brazil according to new figures in September of 2019. This article helps to elaborate on the concept of my paper that both racism and sexism continue to be the major ongoing issues of violence in Brazil.

Trindade, L. V. P. (2019, July 8). Brazil’s supposed ‘racial democracy’ has a dire problem with online racism. Retrieved October 25, 2019, from

  • This article directly applies to racism in Brazil, as it addresses the issue of Brazil continuing to self-claim themselves as being a country of “racial democracy,” when in fact they are not as they continue to strive for the “whitening” ideology. This article specifically addresses the country’s issues towards race throughout the production of online articles.

Roth, K. (2019, January 17). World Report 2019: Rights Trends in Brazil. Retrieved October 25, 2019, from

  • This article surrounds how violence in Brazil is comprised of racism and sexism as member of Congress is called out for endorsing torture and other abusive practices. This person of political power is also known to have made openly racist, homophobic and misogynist statements, and won a run-off election in October 2018.

Garcia-Navarro, L. (2014, November 9). In Brazil, Race Is A Matter Of Life And Violent Death. Retrieved October 25, 2019, from

  • This article is a clear depiction of police brutality in regard to race, as two policemen picked up three black teenagers in Rio de Janeiro. The three hadn’t committed any crime, but they did have a history of petty offenses. The officers drove them up to the wooded hills above the city, where one was shot in the head and killed, one was shot in the leg and the back and left for dead, and another escaped.

Cidade de Deus. (2002). Retrieved from

  • Although this film may be a story of non-fiction, I feel as though information about the city of Rio to be undoubtedly true. This film discusses and displays the poverty-stricken favelas of Rio de Janeiro in the 1970s, where two young men choose different paths and their outcomes are undoubtedly due the state and ways of the country overall.

Skidmore, T. (2009). The Whitening Ideal. Brazilian Mosaic: Portraits of a Diverse People and Culture, 92–95.

  • This course reading discusses the racial reality of Brazil, in comparison to the “racial democracy” the country and many of it’s civilians are thought to be part of. In actuality, the journal discusses how the country on the contrary is part of an epidemic that idolises “whiteness” and what it means to be “white.”

Everyday Violence of Life. (1995). Brazilian Mosaic: Portraits of a Diverse People and Culture, 194–202.

  • This article applies to my paper as it discusses a variation of ways in which Brazil displays its violence. Evidentially, contributing to both ideas surrounding race and sex.