Choose a patient-care situation in which the RN should intervene and advocate for the patient. An example of such a situation might be when a patient has not been given complete informed consent.
Include the following in your paper:

Describe the clinical situation concisely and descriptively. It can be an actual situation or a hypothetical one.
Apply the Bioethical Decision Making Model Click for more options to the specific clinical ethical situation that you choose. Address each section of the model in your paper.
Conclude with a discussion of nursing advocacy in the clinical setting and the nurse’s role as a patient advocate.
Your paper should be 4-5 pages.

You must reference and cite 1-2 scholarly sources other than your text. Include a title page and a reference page to cite your text and adhere to APA formatting.

Bioethical Decision Making Model
1. Define the dilemma: Use your own words to describe the problem. State it in a way  that others can quickly understand your dilemma. Review
2. Identify the medical facts: Describe the facts that are relevant to the dilemma.
3. Remember that the diagnosis and prognosis are medical facts.
4. Identify the non-medical facts (patient and family, external influences):
a. Patient and family facts such as culture, religion, social, economic, the  existence of an Advance Healthcare Directive, verbal preferences made by  the patient, how the patient lived his/her life.
b. Those that you discuss should be relevant to the situation.
5. External influences include: organizational policies, federal and state laws, practice  acts, code of ethics. These should be relevant to the situation.
6. For both step 2 or 3, separate the facts from the assumptions: Sometimes all  healthcare professionals allow assumptions to guide their decision-making. These  must be identified so that these assumptions do not interfere with the process.
7. Identify items that need clarification. Your paper should identify facts that you need  to clarify. When initially discussing an ethical situation, it is not unusual to not have  all of the answers.
8. Identify the decision makers: Is the patient an adult competent to make their own  choices? Is the patient a child who is old enough to have a say in the decision. If the  patient cannot make their own decision, who is the decision maker? How was this  person selected?
9. Review the underlying ethical principles: Review which ones and why they apply t  this particular case: beneficence, nonmaleficience, veracity, fidelity, autonomy and  justice.
10. Define alternatives: One-Way to proceed may be apparent at this point. However,  sometimes there are different choices. They should be addressed identifying the  benefits and burdens for doing one thing versus the other.
11. Follow-up: Define the process to be used with the chosen alternative.
Reference Source: Levine-Ariff, J. & Groh, D.H. (1990). Creating an Ethical Environment.
Nurse managers’ bookshelf a quarterly series: 2:1. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins.

Class texbooks: Pozgar, G. D. Legal and Ethical Issues for Health Professionals. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from

Butts, J. B. Nursing Ethics. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from