Description: Goal: To demonstrate an awareness of the significance of religion, culture and/or politics in shaping nationalist movements; and communicating this effectively by conducting research, interpretation and analysis of primary and secondary sources..
Format: Choose one of the topics listed below.
In responding to the chosen topic, the essay should combine knowledge of course concepts/themes with in-depth research of 2-3 nationalist movements (or key periods within these movements).
The essay must make extensive use of primary and secondary (academic) sources. The essay may include visual materials (e.g. images, maps) but this is not compulsory.
The essay must be written using appropriate academic language and formatting, and must include references and a bibliography. The referencing style used should be Harvard or Chicago 16A (Footnotes). Footnotes and bibliography will not be included in the word count.


• Demonstration of an ability to conduct research, interpretation and analysis of primary and secondary sources (12 marks).

• Demonstration of an ability to communicate effectively about the history of nationalism (12 marks). • Originality (8 marks).

• Appropriate referencing and presentation (8 marks).

Topics (choose one only):
1. What role has ethnic nationalism played in sparking or intensifying major conflicts of the past 150 years? Compare and contrast at least two nationalist movements from across this period.

2. What relationships exist between colonialism/decolonization, and nationalist movements? Discuss, using one imperial power (e.g. Britain, France, Spain, Germany, etc.) and at least two of its formerly colonized nations.

3. Anthony D. Smith argues that nationalism is a dangerous (and often violent) concept, but Michael Billig suggests instead that nationalism is ‘banal’ and part of everyday life. Discuss, using one focal ‘case study’ nation (e.g. Australia, United States, Germany, Japan, etc.) to support your argument.

4. Using Australia or New Zealand as a focal ‘case study’ nation, consider the history of the indigenous rights movement of that country. To what extent could we argue that this movement is another kind of nationalist movement?

5. Popular culture is a common outlet (or forum) for expressions of national identity and nationalist ideology. Using one key aspect (e.g. sport, literature, art, film, music), compare and contrast the ways 2-3 nations have displayed a sense of national identity through popular culture since the 1950s.

Tips: In researching and writing this essay, you should:
• Pay close attention to the parameters of the essay topic. Each asks you to form an argument or thesis, and prompts you to demonstrate or support this using specific examples. It may be necessary for you to further narrow the scope of the topic, so think carefully about: o Time frames (if the topic does not prompt you to take a specific chronological scope, what time period are you going to focus on? Are you going to look at one key era, or compare examples from the early, mid and late 20th century?) o Geography (If the topic does not prompt you to take a specific geographical focus, are you going to hone in on a specific region, e.g. South East Asia, the Balkans, the Middle East? Or will it be more effective to compare examples from different regions?) o Key events or outlets of nationalism (if the topic does not prompt you to look at a specific outlet of nationalist energy e.g. war, how are you going to discuss the nationalist movement(s)? Will you compare political parties, periods of violence/protest, independence campaigns, particularly rich eras of cultural nationalism, etc.?)

• Demonstrate your understanding of course concepts and themes by making use of the materials in the set readings, the recommended additional readings/resources available on Black Board, and the additional recommended resources listed below.
• Demonstrate your ability to conduct extensive and original research by seeking out additional primary and secondary sources. A detailed guide (including suggestions of resource databases) is provided on Black Board (under Learning Materials > Assessment Tips).
• Your essay should be written in a formal academic manner. It is an essay, not a report. It should have: a clear introduction paragraph, an appropriate number of body paragraphs (each with a clear theme or idea that contributes to your overall topic/argument), a concise conclusion paragraph, and a bibliography/list of sources. A detailed guide to researching,
writing and editing a history essay is provided on Black Board (under Learning Materials > Assessment Tips).

Recommended additional readings:
Please note: Each week a list of additional recommended readings is also uploaded to Blackboard; these readings are more specific to the week’s topic/theme, and may be helpful in writing your essay. The suggestions below are more general and may apply across multiple weeks/themes.

General theory: Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1991). USC: JC311.A656 1991. David Brown, Contemporary Nationalism: Civic, Ethnocultural and Multicultural Politics (London: Routledge, 2000). USC: JC311.B764 2000. Michael E. Brown, Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict (Cambridge: MIT, 2001). USC: JC311.N315 2001. Tim Edensor, National Identity, Popular Culture and Everyday Life (Oxford: Berg, 2002). USC: BF753.E33 2002. Adrian Hastings, The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997). USC: JC311.H346 1997 ONLINE. Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992). USC: JC311.H577 1992. John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith, Nationalism (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994). USC: JC311.N295 1994. Alexander J. Motyl, Encyclopedia of Nationalism (San Diego: Academic, 2001). USC: JC311 E52 2001. Anthony D. Smith, The Ethnic Origins of Nations (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987). USC: JC311.S5386 1986. Anthony D. Smith, National Identity (Reno: U. Nevada, 1991). USC: JC311.S538 1991.
General History: C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914 (London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003). USC: D295.B28 2004. David Brown, Contemporary Nationalism: Civic, Ethnocultural and Multicultural Politics (London: Routledge, 2000). USC: JC311.B764 2000. Patrick J. Geary, The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2001). USC: D135.G43 2001. Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992). USC: JC311.H577 1992. Tom Nairn, Global Matrix: Nationalism, Globalism and State-Terrorism (London: Pluto, 2005). USC: JC311.N35 2005 ONLINE. L. H. Roper and Bertrand van Ruymbeke, Constructing Early Modern Empires: Proprietary Ventures in the Atlantic World 1500-1750 (Leiden: Brill, 2007). USC: JV105.C66 2007 ONLINE. Angel Smith and Stefan Berger, Nationalism, Labour and Ethnicity 1870-1939 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1999). USC: JC311.B4 1999.

Themes: Art, Literature, Religion, Sport, Music, etc.: Judith Butler, Who Sings the Nation-State?: Language, Politics, Belonging (London: Seagull, 2007). USC: JC311.B984 2007. Mike Cronin and David Mayall, Sporting Nationalisms: Identity, Ethnicity, Immigration and Assimilation (London: F. Cass, 1998). USC: GV706.34.S66 1998. Tricia Cusack and Sighle Bhrethnach-Lynch (eds), Art, Nation and Gender: Ethnic Landscapes, Myths and Mother-Figures (Burlington: Ashgate, 2002). USC: NX454.5.N34 A77 2000. Mark Juergensmeyer, The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State (Berkeley: UCP, 1993). USC: BL65.R48 J84 1993. Kevin Foster, Fighting Fictions: War, Narrative and National Identity (London: Pluto, 1999). USC: F3031.5.F67 1999. Annika Hvithamar, Margit Warbug and Brian Jacobsen, Holy Nations and Global Identities: Civil Religion, Nationalism, and Globalisation (Leiden: Brill, 2009). USC: BL98.5.H65 2009 ONLINE. J. A. Mangan, Tribal Identities: Nationalism, Europe, Sport (London: Frank Cass, 1996). USC: GV706.34.T75 1996. Sabina Mihelj, Media Nations: Communicating Belonging and Exclusion in the Modern World (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011). USC: P96.N37 M56 2011.
Adrian Smith and Dilwyn Porter, Sport and National Identity in the Post-War World (London: Routledge, 2004). USC: GV706.34.S62 2004. Alan Tomlinson and Christopher Young, National Identity and Global Sports Events: Culture, Politics and Spectacle in the Olympics and the Football World Cup (Albany: SUNYP, 2005). USC: GV706.34.N38 2005. Anne-Marie Willis, Illusions of Identity: The Art of Nation (Sydney: Hale & Iremonger, 1993). USC: N7400.W56 1993.