ISSN: 1307-9298
Copyright © IEJEE
March 2018, Volume 10, Issue 4, 449-456
Effect of Recess on Fifth Grade Students’
Time On-task in an Elementary Classroom
Alicia Cooper Stappa,*, Jenny Kate Karrb
DOI: 10.26822/iejee.2018438135
28 November 2017
20 February 2018
28 February 2018
a,* Correponding Author: Alicia Cooper Stapp, School of Education, Department of Teacher Education, University of Mississippi, USA.
b Jenny Kate Karr, School of Education, Department of Teacher Education, University of Mississippi, USA.
Recess is an integral part of the school day where children are afforded the opportunity to create and organize games, socialize with their peers,
and explore nature. When implemented effectively, recess has the potential to offer significant academic, physical, and social benefits (London,
Westrich, Stokes-Guinan, & McGlaughlin, 2015). However, the amount of time allocated to recess in elementary schools across the United
States has significantly declined over the past two decades. A reduction in play time can be attributed to increased educational mandates,
which have lead to vigorous and ongoing debates about the important role recess plays in elementary schools. Thus, this quantitative study
examined the effect of recess on fifth grade students’ time on-task in an elementary classroom. Participants on- and off-task behaviors were
observed and documented on a task frequency chart prior to and after recess. Findings from the study indicated that providing fifth-grade
students with daily recess significantly increased on-task behaviors in the classroom.
Keywords: Recess, time on-task, elementary classroom, instructional time
Expanding learning time policies is increasingly popular in
educational reform across the United States. Subsequently,
academic instruction occupies most of a child’s school
day with the underlying goal of increasing academic performance
(Woods, 2015). This reallocation of time during the
school day to address academic concerns is not fading; if anything,
the trend is increasing. In the Pennsylvania State Education
Association’s (PSEA) 20/20 Vision for the Future (2010),
authors note that increasing instructional time is critical to
improving student achievement. However, critics argue that
a change in instructional time does not have a significant impact
on student achievement and can be a catalyst for behavior
problems (Baker, Febrega, Galindo, & Mishook, 2004; Silva,
2007). To combat long periods of instruction, a number of
countries embed unstructured recess breaks throughout the
school day with the understanding that providing physical
activity improves attentiveness in the classroom (Pelligrini &
Bohn, 2005). This strategy is scarcely practiced in the United
States, as the foci remains steadfast on increasing academic
achievement. Therefore, breaks from academic instruction,
such as recess, remain at a high risk of being diminished or
eliminated altogether (Ramstetter, Murray, & Garner, 2010).
Decrease in recess time
The Center on Education Policy (2008) examined the impact
of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act on recess and found
that 20% of school districts decreased recess time, with an
average decrease of 50 minutes per week (Center on Education
Policy, 2008). Burriss and Burriss (2011) examined the
effect of policy and practice on outdoor play and learning via
questionnaires. The surveys completed by representatives
from 173 randomly selected school districts in the United
States indicated that 32.3% of respondents believed that
there had been a decrease in time for outdoor play and only
5.3% believed there had been an increase (Burriss & Burriss,
2011). These reductions allocate more time for English and
math instruction (Brusseau & Hannon, 2015).
Although the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015 requires
that Health and Physical Education curricula be included
as part of a child’s well-rounded education, it does not
mandate time for recess or outdoor play. Ultimately, the decision
to implement or remove recess is at the discretion of
each state, school district, or individual school. Without daily
recess, students find themselves in sedentary environments
a majority of the school day. The effects of such sedentary
behaviors can be detrimental to students’ physical activity
levels, social development, and academic achievement (Mc-
Manus et al., 2015).
Time on-task
An extensive body of research has examined how recess
affects students’ social (Barros, Silver, & Stein, 2009; Jarrett,
2002; Ramstetter et al., 2010), physical (Erwin, Ickes, Ahn, &
Fedewa, 2014; Ling, King, Speck, Kim, & Wu, 2014; Springer,
Tanguturi, Ranjit, Skala, & Kelder, 2013), and academic abilities
(Brusseau & Hannon, 2015; Chang & Coward, 2015; Pelligrini
& Bohn, 2005). However, few studies have examined
the effect recess has on students’ time on-task in the classroom,
prior to and following a period of recess. According
to Karweit and Slavin (1981), the amount of time that students
spend on-task, or engaged in learning, is an important
factor contributing to academic achievement. In classrooms
where students spend limited amounts of time on-task, a
vast amount of instructional time is lost. Conversely, a greater
amount of instructional time is displayed in classrooms
where students spend a majority of time on-task (Karweit
& Slavin, 1981). Furthermore, a beginning teacher evaluation
study indicated that students who spend more time engaged
in the learning process have higher levels of academic
achievement (Berliner & Tukinoff, 1976). Thus, it is imperative
for elementary classroom teachers to utilize methods
and strategies such as physical breaks from the classroom
that may help increase time on-task.
© 2017 Published by T& K Academic. This is an open access article under the CC BY- NC- ND license. (
March 2018, Volume 10, Issue 4, 449-456
Effect of recess on social development
While the academic and physical benefits of recess are
perhaps the most documented factors that can be used to
advocate for increased recess time for children, recess has
the multifaceted potential to affect the whole child in ways
that exceed academic and physical benefits (Ramstetter et
al., 2010). In direct contrast to classroom activities where
children cannot make the choice to withdraw from an activity,
at recess, children are free to join in or leave play
situations according to their own discretion. This “open
setting” that children encounter at recess enables them to
engage in diverse and abundant social interactions that
they may not experience otherwise (Jarrett, 2002, p. 3).
Additionally, this open and unstructured recess period
provides time for children to acquire social skills that may
not be developed within a structured classroom environment
(Ramstetter et al., 2010).
Effect of recess on academic achievement
Research suggests that social interactions have important
cognitive implications. However, the opportunity for
communication with peers is not the only aspect of recess
that benefits students’ academic achievement (Pellegrini
& Smith, 1993). Elementary students in Shanghai, China
receive daily recess time that amounts to almost 40% of
an entire school day. Even though these students spend
more time away from academic work every day, their ability
to perform well on academic tasks has not declined. In
fact, these are some of the world’s highest achieving students,
and they repeatedly receive top honors in multiple
areas on the Program for International Student Assessment,
the “most-watched international comparison exam”
(Chang & Coward, 2015, p. 15).
Donnelly and Lambourne (2011) examined the effect of
providing “90 min/week of moderate to vigorous physically
active academic lessons intermittently throughout
the school day” (p. S38) on the academic achievement of
students in 24 elementary schools in northeast Kansas. A
third party of trained psychologists measured academic
achievement by administering The Wechler Individual
Achievement Test. This test assesses reading, writing,
mathematics, spelling, and oral language skills. Performance
on this standardized test indicated an improvement
of 6% among students involved in physically active
academic lessons compared to a 1% decrease for students
in control classrooms. Thus, concluding that physical activity
can have a positive impact on academic achievement
(Donnelly & Lambourne, 2011).
Effect of recess on childhood obesity
Increasing elementary children’s physical activity levels at
school is also an essential element to reducing childhood
obesity (Chin & Ludwig, 2013). Obesity is an increasingly
present issue among elementary school age children
across the globe. A national report, Prevalence of Obesity
Among Children and Adolescents: United States, Trends
1963-1965 Through 2007-2008, indicated that the prevalence
of childhood obesity has tripled since 1976, when
only 6.5% of children ages 6-11 were classified as obese
(Ogden & Carroll, 2010). Recent statistics indicate that
approximately 17% of all children and adolescents in the
United States are affected by obesity (Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016). Globally, the trajectory
of childhood obesity is steadily increasing and is cited
as one of the most “serious public health challenges
of the 21st century” (World Health Organization [WHO],
2017). DeOnis, Blossner, and Borghi (2010) noted that if
the obesity epidemic continues, nearly 9% of all preschool
aged children around the world will be considered obese
by 2020 (DeOnis, Blossner, & Borghi, 2010).
One of the causes of obesity can be attributed to a child’s
lack of energy expenditure during the day. The average
child sits for approximately 8.5 hrs each day (McManus
et al., 2015). When a child’s energy expenditure is not
equal to energy intake, weight gain is inevitable. The energy
balance can only be recovered through increased
physical activity and healthy eating behaviors (Ling et al.,
2014). Fernandes and Sturm (2011) examined the effect
of physical activity at school on obesity prevention among
8,246 elementary students in 970 schools. Initially, body
mass index (BMI) was calculated using each participant’s
height and weight. Each participant’s teacher reported the
frequency of physical education classes and recess. The
amount of time each student participated in physical activity
at school was then calculated. Data was collected periodically
throughout the study, and results indicated that
meeting the National Association of Sport and Physical Education’s
(NASPE) recommended time for recess “was associated
with a decrease of 0.74 BMI percentile units” (Fernandes&
Sturm, 2011, p. 178). Thus, providing evidence to
suggest that reducing physical activity at school can have a
detrimental effect on elementary students’ overall health.
Recess as a mental break
In addition to the social, academic, and physical reasons
for providing elementary students with daily recess, people
of all ages and in all professions benefit from breaks in
their daily routine. According to Jarrett (2002), breaks are
necessary for “satisfaction and alertness” (p. 2). Studies
have also shown that short, structured breaks throughout
the school day can improve physical activity levels,
academic achievement, and concentration (Pelligrinini,
Huberty, & Jones, 1995; Caterino & Polak, 1999; Barr-Anderson
et al., 2011). One of the most critical aspects of
recess is that it provides a break for elementary students
in the day’s routine. This break in routine can also be described
as a “period of interruption” (Ramstetter et al.,
2010, p. 522). A period of interruption followed by a period
of concentrated instruction is necessary for optimal
cognitive processing in children (Ramstetter et al., 2010).
When recess is provided as an unstructured break during
the school day, the stresses and distractions that normally
interfere with cognitive processes are diminished.
It is important to note that transitioning from one academic
subject to another does not provide a cognitive or physical
break (Barros et al., 2009). Only the unstructured free
time that recess can provide, affords elementary students
the opportunity for mental change and physical release.
The benefits that come from this energy release reach far
beyond a break from rigorous academic work and cognitive
processing, as they have the potential to improve
many aspects of the classroom (Barros et al., 2009).
As aforementioned, research continually indicates that
physical activity has a positive impact on the academic, social
and physical development of children. Taking this into
account, the researchers’ anecdotal observations in the
field revealed that elementary students became increasingly
off-task as recess drew closer and increasingly ontask
after recess breaks. This evidence led the researchers
to believe that studying the effects of recess on fifth
grade students’ time on-task in the classroom would be
relevant and beneficial to elementary educators, administrators,
policymakers, parents, and students. The present
study aimed to address the following research questions:
1. Do on-task behaviors in the classroom increase or
Effect of Recess on Fifth Grade Students’ Time On-Task / Cooper Stapp & Kate Karr
decrease after a 25-minute period of recess?
2. Are the average minutes of on-task behaviors higher before
or after recess?
3. Are the average minutes of off-task behaviors higher
before or after recess?
Participants and setting
This quantitative study examined the effect of recess on
fifth grade students’ time on-task in an elementary classroom.
The present study took place in a fifth grade general
education classroom in Northwest Mississippi. Participants
were selected through non-probability purposive
sampling and were inclusive of six female students and
six male students, ages 10-12. Ethnicities of the participants
were 66.7% Caucasian, 25% African American, and
8.3% biracial. Participants involved in this study exhibited
a wide range of ability levels as determined by their academic
achievement. Academic achievement is representative
of performance-based outcomes that identify the
extent to which a student has met specific learning goals
within the context of the learning environment. For the
present study, academic achievement levels were determined
by analyzing data from a formal standardized test
entitled STAR that assessed both reading and mathematics
skills. According to the criterion for the STAR assessments,
37.5% of the participants tested above grade level,
30.8% of the participants tested at grade level, and 31.7%
of the participants tested below grade level. Prior to the
study, consent was obtained from the classroom teacher,
librarian, and art teacher to conduct observations in their
classrooms. Parental consent and children’s assent was
not required, as there were no interactions with the participants
during observations and no interventions were
Instrument and observations
An on-task and off-task frequency chart was utilized to
document observations of participants’ on- and/or offtask
behaviors in the classroom prior to and following
a 25-minute recess period (See Appendix A). The whole
interval recording (WIR) protocol was utilized within the
on- and off-task frequency chart to collect data, wherein
the behavior that occurred during each time interval was
recorded (Fisk & Delmolino, 2012). This type of data collection
system is known as discontinuous, as it divides the
observation into equal duration intervals and notes the
occurence or nonoccurence of a behavior within a given
interval (Mudford, Taylor, & Martin, 2009). The reserachers
chose WIR by utilizing a guide Fisk and Delmolino (2012)
developed to aid reserachers in selecting valid and reliable
measurement systems based on the current body of research
and the context of their study. Space was allocated
in the task frequency chart for participant observations,
six male and six female. Twelve observations were completed
over a six week period from September 12, 2016
– October 19, 2016 on Mondays and Wednesdays for 30
minutes during the morning. The observations took place
prior to recess in a fifth grade classroom and after recess
in the school library or with the art teacher in the regular
academic classroom. This type of observation is known as
a controlled structured observation, as the observations
were completed under the same conditions during each
session and could be easily replicated. The observer did
not have contact or interaction with the subject, as the
sole intent was to observe behaviors in the most natural
environment possible. Systematic time sampling was utilized
during observations to acquire different samples of
behavior at predetermined time intervals over the course
of the observations. Sytematic time sampling, as opposed
to random time sampling, enables observations to be
generalized during the time in which the observation occurred
(Bakeman, 1997).. Observations were divided into
5-minute intervals, wherein each 5-minute time interval
included two codes that represented on-task or off-task
behaviors. These behaviors were documented during the
5-minute time intervals for each participant. The list of
on- and off-task behaviors observed for during this study
were derived from the literatüre, wherein the most common
recurring on- and off-task behaviors in the classroom
setting were identified. Moreover, behaviors on the onand
off-task lists were based on both quantitiative and
qualitative studies noted in the literatüre that addressed
actively engaged behaviors (on-task) which were correlated
with student productivity and disruptive classroom behaviors
(off-task) which were connected to less productive
students (Dalton, Martella, & Marchand-Martella, Rathvon,
1990; Sun & Shek, 2012). The behaviors observed for included,
but were not limited to the following:
ON (on-task)
• answering questions asked by teacher;
• looking at or writing on academic materials;
• receiving assistance from teacher or teacher’s
• raising a hand and waiting to be called on;
• reading a book when finished with work; and
• looking at teacher or speaker.
OFF (off-task)
• playing with materials;
• staring into space/looking around class/stretching;
• laying head down;
• scribbling on paper;
• talking to a classmate about non-academic matter;
• talking to the teacher when not asked a question
• singing or talking aloud to oneself; and
• out of seat or walking around class without permission.
During each observational period, the code that correlated
with the participant’s behavior for each 5-minute interval
was circled. The code was determined by analyzing
the behavior that was exhibited a majority of the 5-minute
time interval. Upon final data collection, descriptive and
inferential statistics were utilized to summarize the data
sets. Two double bar graphs were created to display the
average number of minutes each participant spent ontask
and off-task prior to and after recess. The average
number of minutes each participant spent on-task before
recess and after recess was also converted to percentages
and used to create a table that identified each participant’s
average percentage of time on-task before recess, average
percentage of time on-task after recess, and average
increase in time on-task from before to after recess. The
double bar graphs and table were then compared to determine
the overall increase or decrease that recess had
on fifth grade students’ time on-task in the classroom. Additionally,
a paired samples t-test was completed to determine
if the difference in increase of time on-task prior to
and following recess were statistically significant. One of
the assumptions of the paired t-test is that the two groups
are normally distributed. Thus, the Shapiro-wilk test was
utilized to test for normality.
March 2018, Volume 10, Issue 4, 449-456
Even though time allocated for recess in elementary
schools has decreased across the United States (Hausenblas
& Rhodes, 2016), the justification for educational policy
may rest on the assumption that reducing recess time
increases instructional time, therefore improving academic
performance. On the contrary, the present study’s findings
indicate that including recess in a school day’s allocated
time schedule in fact, increases time on-task. What is
known from research is that time on-task is a strong indicator
of academic engagement and achievement. Thus,
this study adds to the breadth of research that argues
recess should be included as a vital component of an elementary
child’s school day.
Results for research question 1
Results revealed that each of the 12 participant’s average
time on-task increased from before recess to after recess
(See Table 1). Student 5 had the greatest increase
in time on-task, from 20.8% time on-task prior to recess
to 60.4% time on-task after recess. Student 2 showed the
lowest percentage of time on-task before recess (18.7%)
and remained at the lowest percentage of time on-task
after recess (56.2%). However, this student showed great
improvement in time on-task following recess (37.5%).
Student 3 displayed the smallest amount of increase in
time on-task, from 64.5% before recess to 75% after recess.
Though there was not a large increase in time ontask,
this participant had the highest percentage of time
on-task before recess and still showed an improvement in
time on-task behaviors immediately following a period of
recess. The overall average increase for all participants in
time on-task from before recess to after recess was 33.7%.
Results for research question 2
During the 30 minute period following recess, 100% of the
participants spent more time on-task than off-task (See
Figure 1). Only one participant (Student 3) had a less difference
between the average amount of time spent ontask
and off-task during the period of time immediately
following recess. Student 3 spent 19.375 minutes on-task
before recess and 22.5 minutes on-task following recess.
This is a 3.125 minute increase in time on-task from before
recess to after recess.
Figure 1. Participants’ average time on-task and average
time off-task after a period of recess.
Results for research question 3
Results also indicated that only two of the twelve participants
observed, Student 3 and Student 9, spent more
time on-task than off-task during the period of observation
before recess (See Figure 2). Only two more of the
twelve participants observed, Student 1 and Student 10,
spent near equal amounts of time on-task and off-task.
Student 1 spent 47.9% of time on-task and 52.1% of time
off-task, and Student 10 spent 45.8% of time on-task and
54.2% of time off-task. Even though the amounts of time
these two participants spent on-and off-task were similar,
Student 1 spent 1.25 more minutes off-task than on-task,
and Student 10 spent 2.5 more minutes off-task than ontask.
The remainder of the twelve participants spent more
time off-task than on-task on average during the period
of observation before recess. In summary, 83.3% of the
participants observed in the fifth grade classroom spent
more time off-task than on-task during the 30 minutes prior
to recess.
Figure 2. Participants’ average time on-task and average
time off-task before a period of recess.
Paired t-test
A paried samples t-test was completed to compare the
means of time on-task before and after recess for a single
group. Prior to completing the paired t-test, a Shapiro-wilk
test was conducted to test for normality of the data. Results
indicated that p> .05, indicating that the data was
normal. Results of the paired-samples t-test revealed that
the mean time on-task before recess (M= 36.59, SD= 13.70)
varied from after recess (M= 70.27, SD= 9.61) at the .05 significance
level (t= 13.17, df= 11, n= 12) (See Table 1).
Table 1. Participants’ average time on-task before recess, average
time on-task after recess, and average increase in time
Before Recess
Average time
After Recess
Average time
increase in
time on-task
S1 47.9% 85.4% 37.5%
S2 18.7% 56.2% 37.5%
S3 64.5% 75% 10.5%
S4 20.8% 60.4% 39.6%
S5 27% 70.8% 43.8%
S6 25% 60.4% 35.4%
S7 37.5% 66.6% 29.1%
S8 33.3% 77% 43.7%
S9 52% 81.2% 29.2%
S10 45.8% 81.2% 35.4%
S11 35.4% 66.6% 31.2%
S12 31.2% 62.5% 31.3%
Note: Data analysis showed that when the difference in mean time
on-task prior to and following recess were compared (p= .00001),
the results were statistically significant, p< .05.
To conclude, when the behaviors of participants were observed
prior to a period of recess 100% of the participants
Effect of Recess on Fifth Grade Students’ Time On-Task / Cooper Stapp & Kate Karr
displayed an increase in time on-task. Participants spent,
on average, between 3.125 and 13.125 more minutes ontask
in the classroom after a period of recess. Therefore,
the findings from this study indicate that a 25-minute period
of recess significantly increased fifth-grade students’
average time on-task in the classroom.
Similar to results of previous quantitative studies (Jarrett,
2002; Pellegrini & Bohn, 2005; Ramstetter et al., 2010),
this study supports the theory that short breaks which
include physical activity during the school day enable
students to remain on-task for longer periods of time. A
study by Foran, Manion, & Rutherford (2017) also found
that teachers perceived students to be more focused after
participating in physical activity. While numerous studies
have been conducted that indicate students who are physcially
active during the school day earn higher grades,
are more focused, and perform better on achievement
tests (Hillman, Erickson, & Kramer, 2008; Rasberry et al.,
2011), much less is known about why this actually occurs.
To address the “why,” researchers have recently begun to
examine the changes in the overall physiology of the brain
that occurs when children participate in physical activity.
Recent brain imaging technology has enabled reserachers
to examine children’s brain malleations during physical
activity and correlate them to a child’s learning and development
(Hillman, Erickson, & Kramer, 2008). Ploughman
(2008) also noted that changes in the brain, such as increased
neurotransmitters identified through EEG tests,
oxygen saturation, and growth in the brain-derived neurotropic
factor are all correlated to cognitive development
for children. Thus, this provides evidence to suggest that
the changes in brain physiology that occur when students
participate in physical activity at school, such as recess,
have the ability to improve cognitive functions needed
for success, such as attention and focusing on tasks in
the classroom. Therefore, recess needs be considered an
essential element of the school day and should be taken
into consideration when daily schedules are developed in
elementary schools. Future research should take this into
consideration when addressing the connections between
children’s physical activity, changes in brain physiology
and performance in the classroom. Contrary to arguments
utilized by those who eliminate recess time, findings of
this study indicate that recess positively affected the ontask
behaviors of fifth grade students in the classroom.
The effect of recess on each participant’s time on-task indicated
statistically significant outcomes, however, there are
a number of limitations that may have factored into the results.
One of the limitations was the location of the school
at which participants were observed and the time of year
when the research was conducted. The research was conducted
in the state of Mississippi, during the months of
September and October. These months are particularly
warm, which may have had an effect on the findings by
altering participants’ activity levels at recess. Another limitation
of this study was the subject matter participants
learned during observational periods, both before and
after recess. On Mondays, participants attended a library
class following recess, and on Wednesdays, participants
attended an art class following recess. Studying different
subjects could have influenced participants to demonstrate
more on-task or off-task behaviors depending on
interest level of the subject. A third limitation of this study
is the time of day in which students participated in a period
of recess. If recess had been offered earlier or later in
the school day, the findings of this study could have been
different. Furthermore, this study only examined the ontask
and off-task behaviors of twelve fifth grade students.
A larger sample size of fifth grade students may aid in further
validating the findings of the present study.
Observational data was collected while the researcher
stood in the back of the classroom to provide the least
amount of distraction possible. The purpose of being
minimally distracting was to guarantee that participants’
on-task or off-task behaviors were genuinely reflective
of their typical classroom behavior and were not affected
by the observations that took place. If the observations
did produce distractions, they would be considered
a limitation of the research study. The amount of recess
time participants were provided is another limitation of
this research study. Participants’ daily schedule allocated
25 minutes of recess, but on occasion participants would
receive less than or more than 25 minutes of recess depending
on when assignments were completed, weather
conditions, and other varying circumstances.
Lastly, the variety of assignments that participants completed
during each observation period before and after
recess could be considered a limitation. Some tasks could
be considered much more engaging and interactive, which
could cause participants to demonstrate more on-task behaviors.
These engaging or interactive tasks included cooperative
learning activities or timed multiplication tests.
Conversely, some tasks that participants were assigned
could be considered more mundane and required a higher
level of self-discipline from participants to complete,
such as listening to the teacher read texts aloud or completing
worksheets. This could have caused participants to
demonstrate more off-task behaviors.
Conclusion and recommendations
Findings from this study indicated a positive association
between allocating time for recess and on-task classroom
behaviors. However, future research might include a larger
sample size with a similar design. It would also be advantageous
to include a group of more varied participants to
provide further validation of this study. Other opportunities
for future research may examine the effects of recess
when provided to students at different times throughout
the school day, the effects that longer or shorter recess
periods have on time on-task, how recess affects students
in different grade levels, and/or how the effects of recess
may differ between gender.
In summary, this study provides a small, albeit significant
insight into the behavioral and subsequently academic
advantages of providing elementary students with a recess
break during the school day. Findings demonstrated
that recess significantly increased on-task behaviors of
fifth grade students in an elementary classroom. While
it is recommended that children receive at least 60 minutes
of physical activity each day, the stark reality is that
many students in countries across the world, including the
United States, receive short recess breaks or no breaks at
all due to educational policies that have increased instructional
time. Thus, it is critical that administrators, educators,
and policymakers find the intricate balance between
allocating time for recess and academics to ensure that all
elementary school children are afforded the opportunity
to succeed at their highest potential.
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March 2018, Volume 10, Issue 4, 449-456
On-Task and Off-Task Behaviors
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