Identifying the Implications of Diverse Methodologies and Methods


The proposed topic is “The development of project plan to support implementation of school wellness.” It is critical in the advancement of plans and policies that ensure the overall improvement of school-based curricula. Furthermore, the analysis of play-based learning vs traditional in early years will allow the researcher to identify the potential areas of improvement in the designing of future curricula by determining how the two approaches can be merged together to develop a more advanced syllabus (Barnhardt et al., 2016). The professional relevance of the given research topic will be through interaction with teachers, students and other relevant stakeholders.

Research Questions

  1. What internal and external factors affect the effectiveness of school-based curricula?
  2. What roles do teachers play in the improvement of school-based curricula?
  3. What methodologies are applied in the selection of modes of learning in schools?

The given research questions were developed based on the research topic and the existing literature review. As such, the investigation of existing knowledge and texts in educational research play a key role on how a researcher develops their research questions based on a specific topic. Sandberg and Alvesson (2011) provide that the available methodological principles also play a role in answering the questions. It may be explained by the fact that they enable the researcher to understand the research topic and consequently guide the research process. Therefore, it is critical to establishing intertextual coherence and problematisation while determining the research questions (Sandberg and Alvesson, 2011). These aspects allow for clear determination of the research’s position and determination of the most appropriate methodology of the study.

Possible Research Designs and Methods

Mixed method will be the best approach for answering the research questions as it involves the collection and analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data. Diller (2016) determines that this type of research allows the combination or mixing of the two approaches in a specific manner. The fundamental rationale for this type of research design is that the researcher can learn more about their topic. Since the three questions need to be answered through both quantitative and qualitative approaches, mixed methods provide the integration of the strengths of the two methodological paradigms.

Withams (2016) refers to this aspect as the fundamental principle of mixed methods research. However, Fletcher (2016) argues that to achieve reliable and accurate findings, it is important to combine them in a manner that achieves complete complementary strengths and non-overlapping weaknesses. This logic will ensure that the researcher is able to apply the quantitative methodology in the conceptualization of variables, the profiling of dimensions, determining the existent of relationships and formalising comparisons (Fry, 2016).

On the other hand, the qualitative research allows the investigator to achieve the strengths of sensitivity to meaning and context. Moreover, the great methodological strength of this approach enhances the ability to study process and change. Therefore, quantitative methods can be of advantage in areas where quantitative methods are weak and vice versa (Jackson, 2016). This approach is the best for this methodological study as at will allow the investigator to determine what internal and external factors affect the effectiveness of school-based curricula, what roles do teachers play in their improvement, and what methodologies are applied in the selection of modes of learning in schools.

Ethical Considerations

During the collection of data on the development of project plan to support implementation of school wellbeing, various ethical considerations may arise. First, before commencing the collection of data, the investigator will need to gain consent from the study participants. Punch (2009) provides that this action prevents the participants from feeling compelled to participate in the study. As such, the BERA guidelines state that a consent form is provided allowing the researcher to collect data from each subject.

Furthermore, the investigator is obliged to keep all the collected information confidential by maintaining a strict chain of command to protect the subjects in the study. Finally, there is need to ensure that no harm, both physical and emotional is done to the subjects while participating in the study. This factor means that the dignity of all subjects must be respected at all times. These concerns will be addressed by following the stipulated standard operating procedures while interacting with the research participants. Any type of communication relating to the research should be done with honesty and transparency by avoiding all forms of misleading information as well as representing the collecting data in an unbiased manner. This concern is addressed by using the appropriate data analysis technology and approaches to provide accurate findings.

Evaluation of Contrasting Methodological Approaches

Qualitative Research Design

In educational research, qualitative design mostly concentrates on the evaluation of human behaviour and other and social life. Jackson (2016) argues that its richness and complexity mean that there exists other means of analysing social life such as education, an element that presents multiple perspectives and practices in the collection and analysis of the data. Qualitative research provides an alternative approach to the analysis of the research questions.

In the determination of what external and internal factors affect the effectiveness of school-based curricula, this type of methodological design would be the most appropriate as it provides the contextualisation of the theoretical insights that are needed to understand the significant elements that affect education in this regard (Lund, 2019). Thus, qualitative methodology provides not only faster but more effective means of answering the research questions at hand through the application of interviews and case study research to provide an in-depth insight in regards to the elements affecting the school-based curricula.

This type of methodological approach would also be appropriate for determining what methodologies are applied in the selection of modes of learning in schools. This research question is relevant in the determination of the standard operating procedures that are applied in the establishment of school-based curricula and the subsequent modes of learning (Pugsley, 2001). Through the use of interviews with educators and other relevant stakeholders, the researcher is able to gather relevant data in regards to how modes of learning are selected and how these approaches can be utilised in the provision of school wellbeing programs.

The analysis of qualitative data will need the application of coding to assign names, labels, and tags to the collected data. As such, the researcher is able to assign meaning to each piece of data while still indexing it and providing the basis for storage and retrieval (Robertson, 2018). However, there must be clear links between data indicators and the conceptual labels that are given to it as they enable the investigator to check and test the reliability of each code before giving out the final findings.

A qualitative research design provides a rich and detailed analysis of why people act in a certain manner and how these actions affect the final outcome. Sych (2018) argues that this type of approach allows a researcher to evaluate attitudes, feelings and behaviours. Furthermore, qualitative approach creates openness in the sense that it encourages people to expand their response thus leading to more in-depth information. Techniques such as interviews have been shown to stimulate individual’s experiences allowing the research to gather insights that would be otherwise impossible with other techniques (Sych, 2018).

However, studies show that qualitative research design has its own share of disadvantages. The approach is generally more time consuming than quantitative methodology, an aspect that reduces the number of study participants. As such, due to the reduced number of research participants, it becomes difficult to generalise the findings (Hay et al., 2015). A researcher is unable to make systemic comparisons and the accuracy usually depends on the skills of the researcher.

Quantitative Research Design

The use of surveys in the collection of data in educational research has over the years proven relevant when reliability needs to be maintained (Sych, 2018). The use of questionnaires in determining what roles teachers play in the improvement of school-based curricula allows the investigator to gather factual information and provides an effective means of measuring participants’ attitudes, opinions and beliefs. However, Yoo, Jang and Park (2018) argue that the development of the different parts of a survey should depend on the types of measurements involved. As such, it is critical for the investigator to design the questions and approach the respondents professionally in order to ensure that accurate data is gathered.

Quantitative methodological approach allows for a broader study that provides for an increased number of research participants. This element ensures greater objectivity and accuracy of results by allowing few variables and extended cases (Sych, 2018). Thus, personal bias can be avoided as the findings are based on the response of the subjects and not the investigator’s conclusions.

However, quantitative methodology has been found to collect much narrower and sometimes superficial datasets making the results limited as they provide less elaborate accounts of human perception rather than the detailed narrative (Barnhardt et al., 2016). Also, the development of standard questions by investigators has been found to contribute to structural bias which subsequently leads to false representation.


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